A landscape full of butterflies is both exhilarating and calming. To attract a variety of butterflies to your garden, you need to plant both larval and nectar plants favored by each kind of butterfly. Nectar plants feed the butterflies that come to your garden, which encourages them to stay and lay their eggs. Once the eggs hatch into caterpillars, they munch on the larval plants you have provided. Be aware that larval plants can look a little ragged as they sustain the caterpillars and prepare them for the chrysalis stage, so don’t despair. And don’t kill the caterpillars if you want to get the butterflies. Here are the favored nectar and larval plants for several butterflies common in the area:
The Florida state butterfly is fond of lantana, Spanish needles and verbena as nectar plants. Plant them in part-shade to attract this particular butterfly. Plant larval plants, including passion vines, in part-shade, too.
These butterflies are attracted to the same nectar plants as the Zebra Longwing — including lantana, verbena, zinnia and buddleia (butterfly bush) — but the plants need to be in full sun for this butterfly. Larval plants are also the same as those preferred by the Zebra Longwing — particularly passion vines — but again, they must be planted in full sun.
There are many varieties of Swallowtail butterflies, including the Black Swallowtail, Yellow Swallowtail and Tiger Swallowtail. They are attracted to purple coneflowers, roses, zinnias, lantana, dill and fennel for nectar. Larval plants to feed the caterpillars include spicebush, hop tree and fennel.
These majestic migrating butterflies pass through the Emerald Coast area each year, feasting on various types of butterfly milkweed (Asclepias), both as a nectar plant and a larval plant.
Butterflies also need water, preferably in a sheltered place for protection from birds seeking a snack. Instead of an open container of water such as you set out for birds, fill a plant saucer with fine sand and soak it with water. A small rock or large pebble provides a landing spot.
Your Monthly Garden Chores
- As temperatures rise, raise the level of your lawnmower to avoid “scalping” your grass by cutting it too short.
- Water only if you get less than 1 inch of rain a week, and water slowly and deeply for a longer period of time — 45 minutes to an hour. Watering for shorter periods doesn’t soak the roots and encourages thatch to form.
- Continue planting warm-weather vegetables, such as eggplant, peppers and squash, to extend the harvest.
- Mulch garden and shrubbery beds to keep soil temperatures lower and retain moisture.
- Pull spent early tomato plants from your garden and compost them. Plant cherry or grape tomato varieties, which can take our summer heat better than larger tomatoes.
- Cut back annuals and perennials that have bloomed to encourage bushiness and a new flush of blooms.
- Be aware that hanging baskets dry out faster than plants in the ground, so you might need to water twice a day.
- Move pots of herbs, such as parsley, dill and cilantro, to a shady site to extend their growing season. Cool-season perennial and biennial herbs tend to go dormant in the heat of summer, and annuals “bolt” and go to seed.
©2017 PostScript Publishing LLC, all rights reserved. Audrey Post is a certified Advanced Master Gardener volunteer with the University of Florida/IFAS Extension in Leon County. Email her at Questions@MsGrowItAll.com or visit her website at msgrowitall.com. Ms. Grow-It-All® is a registered trademark of PostScript Publishing.